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The Madinah Charter/Constitution

 

In the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful

 

1.         This agreement of Allahs Prophet, Muhammad, shall apply to the immigrants, Quraysh, the citizens of Yathrib who have accepted Islam, and all such people who are in agreement with the above-mentioned bodies and side with them in war.

2.         Those who are a party to this agreement shall be treated as body separate from all those who are not a party to this agreement.

3.         The Quraysh migrants are in themselves a party and as in the past shall be responsible for the payment of blood money on behalf of their criminals and shall themselves have their prisoners freed after the payment of ransom. All this process shall be in accordance with the principles of belief and justice.

4.         Banu Auf shall be responsible for their own tribe and shall equally pay their blood money, in accordance with article , and shall themselves be responsible for ransoming their prisoners. All this work shall be completed in conformity with the principles of honesty and justice.

5.         Banu al-Harith shall be responsible for their own tribe and shall jointly pay their blood money, in accordance with article , and shall themselves be responsible for ransoming their prisoners. All this work shall be completed in conformity with the principles of honesty and justice.

6.         Banu Saidah shall be responsible for their own tribe and shall jointly pay their blood money, in accordance with article 3, and shall themselves be responsible for ransoming their prisoners. All this work shall be completed in conformity with the principles of honesty and justice.

7.         Banu Jusham shall be responsible for their own tribe and shall jointly pay their blood money, in accordance with article 3, and shall themselves be responsible for ransoming their prisoners. All this work shall be completed in conformity with the principles of honesty and justice.

8.         Banu al-Najjar shall be responsible for their own tribe and shall jointly pay their blood money, in accordance with article 3, and shall themselves be responsible for ransoming their prisoners. All this work shall be completed in conformity with the principles of honesty and justice.

9.         Banu Amr shall be responsible for their own tribe and shall jointly pay their blood money, in accordance with article 3, and shall themselves be responsible for ransoming their prisoners. All this work shall be completed in conformity with the principles of honesty and justice.

10.        Banu al-Wabiyyat shall be responsible for their own tribe and shall jointly pay their blood money, in accordance with article 3, and shall themselves be responsible for ransoming their prisoners. All this work shall be completed in conformity with the principles of honesty and justice.

11.        Banu al-Aus shall be responsible for their own tribe and shall jointly pay their blood money, in accordance with article , and shall themselves be responsible for ransoming their prisoners. All this work shall be completed in conformity with the principles of honesty and justice.

12.        If an indigent person from among the Muslims is guilty of an offense in which blood money becomes due or if Muslim is taken prisoner and is unable to pay ransom, it shall be incumbent on other Muslims to pay blood money or ransom on his behalf, so as to create virtue and sympathy among the Muslims.

13.        No Muslim shall be hostile to slave set free by another Muslim.

14.        It shall be the duty of the Muslims to oppose openly any person who makes mischief, foments riots, makes trouble for people, forcibly takes the property of others, or oppresses others. All the Muslims shall remain united in punishing such a person, even if he is the son of one of their own.

15.        Taking the side of an infidel (who is at war), no Muslim shall have the right to kill another Muslim or assist a person who is at war with the Muslims.

16.        The promise of Allah, and responsibility and protection for all have the same meaning. This means that if a Muslim gives refuge to someone, it shall be incumbent on all Muslims to honor it regardless of the social status of the Muslim providing refuge. All the Muslims are brethren to one another.

17.        It is incumbent on all the Muslims to help and treat sympathetically the Jews who have entered into an agreement with the Muslims. Likewise, the Jews are not to be oppressed in any manner, and neither should their enemy be helped against them.

18.        The truce of all the Muslims shall be one: When there is war the way of Allah, none of the Muslims shall leave aside other Muslims to enter into peace treaty with an enemy, unless the treaty includes all the Muslims.

19.        All the groups who participate in war along with the Muslims shall be afforded an opportunity to rest by turns.

20.        The provision of subsistence to the dependants of Muslim who is martyred in the way of Allah shall be the responsibility of all the Muslims.

21.        No doubt all the God-fearing and devout Muslims are on the right path and are the followers of the best way of life.

22.        No non-Muslim who is party to this agreement shall provide refuge to the person or property of any member of Quraysh; no non-Muslim shall assist any other non-Muslim against Muslim.

23.        If someone murders a Muslim and there is a proof against him, the murderer shall be punished. But if the next of kin is prepared to accept blood money, the murderer can be set free after payment. Without any exception, it shall be obligatory on all the Muslims to observe this injunction. Nothing other than the prescribed injunctions shall be acceptable.

24.        For Muslim who accepts the treaty and agrees to abide by it and who believes in Allah and the Day of Judgment, it is permissible neither to create a new practice nor to have dealings with any person who does not respect this treaty. On the Day of Judgment, the curse and wrath of Allah shall descend upon whoever infringes upon this injunction, and no excuse or request for forgiveness shall be accepted by Allah.

25.        When there arises a difference of opinion about anything in this agreement, the matter shall be referred for decision to Allah and Muhammad.

26.        After the treaty, it shall be obligatory on the Jews to render financial assistance to the Muslims when they are at war with an enemy.

27.        The Jews of Banu Auf, who are party to this agreement and who are supporters of the Muslims, shall adhere to their religion and the Muslims to theirs. Excepting religious matters, the Muslims and the Jews shall be regarded as belonging to single party. Anyone from among them who commits an outrage or breaks promise or is guilty of crime shall deserve punishment for his crime.

28.        The Jews of Banu an-Naj jar, who are party to this agreement and who are supporters of the Muslims, shall adhere to their religion and the Muslims to theirs. Excepting religious matters, the Muslims and the Jews shall be regarded as belonging to a single party. Anyone from among them who commits an outrage or breaks promise or is guilty of crime shall deserve punishment for his crime.

29.        The Jews of Banu al-Harith, who are a party to this agreement and who are supporters of the Muslims, shall adhere to their religion and the Muslims to theirs. Excepting religious matters, the Muslims and the Jews shall be regarded as belonging to single party. Anyone from among them who commits an outrage or breaks promise or is guilty of a crime shall deserve punishment for his crime.

30.        The Jews of Banu Saidah, who are party to this agreement and who are supporters of the Muslims, shall adhere to their religion and the Muslims to theirs. Excepting religious matters, the Muslims and the Jews shall be regarded as belonging to a single party. Anyone from among them who commits an outrage or breaks promise or is guilty of a crime shall deserve punishment for his crime.

31.        The Jews of Banu Hashm, who are party to this agreement and who are supporters of the Muslims, shall adhere to their religion and the Muslims to theirs. Excepting religious matters, the Muslims and the Jews shall be regarded as belonging to single party. Anyone from among them who commits an outrage or breaks promise or is guilty of crime shall deserve punishment for his crime.

32.        The Jews of Banu al-Aus, who are party to this agreement and who are supporters of the Muslims, shall adhere to their religion and the Muslims to theirs. Excepting religious matters, the Muslims and the Jews shall be regarded as belonging to single party. Anyone from among them who commits an outrage or breaks a promise or is guilty of a crime shall deserve punishment for his crime.

33.        The Jews of Banu Tha'alabah, who are party to this agreement and who are the supporters of the Muslims, shall adhere to their religion and the Muslims to theirs. Excepting religious matters, the Muslims and the Jews shall be regarded as belonging to single party. Anyone from among them who commits an outrage or breaks a promise or is guilty of crime shall deserve punishment for his crime.

34.        The Jews of Banu Jafnah, who are party to this agreement and who are supporters of the Muslims, shall adhere to their religion and the Muslims to theirs. Excepting religious matters, the Muslims and the Jews shall be regarded as belonging to a single party. Anyone from among them who commits an outrage or breaks a promise or is guilty of crime shall deserve punishment for his crime.

35.        The Jews of Banu al-Shotaybah, who are party to this agreement and who are supporters of the Muslims, shall adhere to their religion and the Muslims to theirs. Excepting religious matters, the Muslims and the Jews shall be regarded as belonging to single party. Anyone from among them who commits an outrage or breaks a promise or is guilty of crime shall deserve punishment for his crime.

36.        The subordinate branches of the above-mentioned tribes shall have the same rights as are enjoyed by the parties themselves.

37.        None of the parties to the treaty shall take any military action out the permission of Mohammed.

38.        No hindrance shall be created in the requital of an injury. Whoever commits breach of promise shall deserve punishment for it, and Allah will help whoever abides faithfully by this agreement.

39.        If a third community wages war against the Muslims or the Jewish treaty makers, they will have to fight united. They shall help each other, and there shall be goodwill and faithfulness between them. The Jews shall bear their expenses of war and the Muslim their expenses.

40.        It is incumbent on the parties to the agreement to treat each other sincerely and to wish each other well. None shall subject any other to oppression or injustice, and the oppressed shall be helped.

41.        The Jews shall share the expenses along with the Muslims as long as they fight jointly.

42.        The plain of Yathrib, which is surrounded by hills, shall be a haram for the partners to the treaty.

43.        The same treatment to which person giving refuge is entitled shall be given to the one seeking refuge with him; he shall not be harmed. refugee shall abide by this agreement and shall not be permitted to break promise.

44.        No one shall be provided refuge without the permission of the people of that place.

45.        If there is any occurrence or difference of opinion among the parties to the treaty that might result in a breach of peace, the matter shall be referred for a decision to Allah and Mohammed, the Prophet of Allah. Allah will be with the one who carefully observes this treaty.

46.        None shall provide protection to the Quraysh of Mecca or to any of their allies.

47.        If Yathrib (Madinah) is invaded, the Muslims and the Jews shall put up joint defense.

48.        If the Muslims make peace treaty with someone, the Jews shall abide by it. If the Jews make peace with someone, it shall be obligatory on the Muslims to extend similar cooperation to the Jews. However, in the case of a religious war of a party, it shall not be the responsibility of the other party to participate.

49.        In the case of an invasion of Madinah, every party will have to defend the area that is in front of it.

50.        The allies of the tribe of Banu al-Aus shall have the same rights as are enjoyed by the parties to this treaty, provided they too show their loyalty. Allah is the supporter and helper of whoever faithfully observes this treaty.

51.        If any of the parties to this treaty has to leave Madinah on account of the exigencies of war, that party shall be entitled to peace and protection; whoever stays in Madinah shall also be entitled to peace. No one shall be oppressed nor shall breach of promise be permissible. Allah and His Prophet are the protectors of whoever respects and abides by this agreement.

 

FOOTNOTES:

(1) The First Written Constitution in the World, Sh. Muhammad Ashraf, Lahore, 1968. First published in England, 1941.
(2) Translated by Frederic G. Kenyon, Internet. !996 The Avalon Project.
(3) The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th Edition, 1991.
(4) The First Written Constitution in the World, p. 9. The translation of the whole text for A. Guillaume's Life of Muhammad is appended at the end.
(5) Ibid., pp. 19-20.
(6) The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th Edition, 1991.
(7) The First Written Constitution, p. 18.
(8) Quran, 49:13.
(9) Ibid., pp. 12-13.
(10) "There shall be no compulsion in religion: the right way is now distinguished from the wrong way." (2:256) Note that this statement of complete religious freedom comes immediately after the grandest statement of God's power to be found in any scripture. It is indeed significant! 
(11) This text is taken from A. Guillaume, The Life of Muhammad -- A Translation of Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah, Oxford University Press, Karachi, 1955; pp. 231-233. Numbering added.

 

 

 

 

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Piagam Madinah

 

 

Dengan nama Allah yang Maha Pengasih lagi Maha Penyayang.

 

Ini adalah piagam dari Muhammad Rasulullah SAW, di kalangan mukminin dan muslimin (yang berasal dari) Quraisy  dan Yatsrib (Madinah), dan yang mengikui mereka, menggabungkan diri dan berjuang bersama mereka.

 

Pasal 1

Sesungguhnya mereka satu umat, lain dari (komuitas) manusia lain.

 

Pasal 2

Kaum muhajirin dari Quraisy sesuai keadaan (kebiasaan) mereka bahu membahu membayar diat di antara mereka dan mereka membayar tebusan tawanan dengan cara baik dan adil di antara mukminin.

 

Pasal 3

Banu Auf sesuai dengan keadaan (kebiasaan) mereka bahu membahu membayar diat di antara mereka seperti semula, dan setiap suku membayar tebusan tawanan dengan  baik dan adil di antara mukminin.

 

Pasal 4

Banu Saidah sesuai dengan keadaan (kebiasaan) mereka bahu membahu membayar diat di antara mereka seperti semula, dan setiap suku membayar tebusan tawanan dengan  baik dan adil di antara mukminin.

 

Pasal 5

Banu Al-Hars sesuai dengan keadaan (kebiasaan) mereka bahu membahu membayar diat di antara mereka seperti semula, dan setiap suku membayar tebusan tawanan dengan  baik dan adil di antara mukminin.

 

Pasal 6

Banu Jusyam sesuai dengan keadaan (kebiasaan) mereka bahu membahu membayar diat di antara mereka seperti semula, dan setiap suku membayar tebusan tawanan dengan  baik dan adil di antara mukminin.

 

Pasal 7

Banu An-Najjar sesuai dengan keadaan (kebiasaan) mereka bahu membahu membayar diat di antara mereka seperti semula, dan setiap suku membayar tebusan tawanan dengan  baik dan adil di antara mukminin.

 

Pasal 8

Banu Amr bin Awf sesuai dengan keadaan (kebiasaan) mereka bahu membahu membayar diat di antara mereka seperti semula, dan setiap suku membayar tebusan tawanan dengan  baik dan adil di antara mukminin.

 

Pasal 9

Banu Al-Nabit sesuai dengan keadaan (kebiasaan) mereka bahu membahu membayar diat di antara mereka seperti semula, dan setiap suku membayar tebusan tawanan dengan  baik dan adil di antara mukminin.

 

Pasal 10

Banu Al-Aws sesuai dengan keadaan (kebiasaan) mereka bahu membahu membayar diat di antara mereka seperti semula, dan setiap suku membayar tebusan tawanan dengan  baik dan adil di antara mukminin.

 

Pasal 11

Sesungguhnya mukminin tidak boleh membiarkan orang yang berat menanggung utang diantara mereka tetapi membantunya dengan baik dalam poembayaran tebusan atau diat.

 

Pasal 12

Seorang mukmin tidak diperbolehkan membuat persekutuan dengan sekutu mukmin lainnya tanpa persetujuan dari padanya.

 

Pasal 13

Orang-orang mukmin yang taqwa harus menentang orangyang diantara mereka mencari atau menuntut sesuatu secara zalim , jahat, melakukan permusuhan atau kerusakan di kalangan mukminin. Kekuatan mereka bersatu dalam menentangnya, sekalipun ia anak dari salah seorang di antara mereka.

 

Pasal 14

Seorang mukmin tidak boleh membunuh orang beriman lainnya lantaran membunuh orang kafir. Tidak boleh pula orang beriman membantu orang kafir untuk (membunuh)  orang beriman.

 

Pasal 15

Jaminan Allah satu. Jaminan (perlindungan) diberikaj oleh mereka yang dekat. Sesungguhnya mukminin itu saling membantu, tidak bergantung kepada golongan lain.

 

Pasal 16

Sesungguhnya orang Yahudi yang mengikuti kita berhak atas pertolongan dan santunan, sepanjang (mukminin) tidak terzalimi dan ditentang olehnya.

 

Pasal 17

Perdamaian mukminin adalah satu. Seorang mukmin tidak boleh membuat perdamaian tanpa ikut serta mukmin lainnya di dalam suatu peperangan di jalan Allah, kecuali atas dasar kesamaan dan keadilan di antara mereka.

 

Pasal 18

Setiap pasukan yang berperang bersama kita harus bahu membahu satu sama lain.

 

Pasal 19

Orang-orang mukmin itu membalas pembunuh mukmin lainnya dalam peperangan di jalan Allah. Orang-orang beriman dan bertakwa berada pada petunjuk yang terbaik dan lurus.

 

Pasal 20

Orang musyrik (Yatsrib) dilarang melindungi harta dan jiwa orang (musyrik) Quraisy, dan tidak boleh bercampur tangan melawan orang beriman.

 

Pasal 21

Barang siapa yang membunuh orang beriman dan cukup bukti atas perbuatannya, harus dihukum bunuh, kecuali wali terbunuh rela (menerima diat). Segenap orang beriman harus bersatu dalam menghukumnya.

 

Pasal 22

Tidak dibenarkan orang mukmin yang mengakui piagam ini, percaya pada Allah dan Hari Akhir, untuk membantu pembunuh dan memberi tempat kediaman kepadanya. Siapa yang memberi bantuan dan menyediakan tempat tinggal bagi pelanggar itu, akan mendapat kutukan dari Allah pada hari kiamat, dan tidak diterima dari padanya penyesalan dan tebusan.

 

Pasal 23

Apabila kamu berselisih tentang sesuatu, penyelesaiannya menurut (ketentuan) Allah Azza Wa Jalla dan (keputusan) Muhammad SAW.

 

Pasal 24

Kaum Yahudi memikul biaya bersama mukminin selama dalam peperangan. 

 

Pasal 25

Kaum Yahudi dari Bani Awf adalah satu umat dengan mukminin. Bagi kaum Yahudi agama mereka, dan bagi kaum muslimin agama mereka. Juga (kebebasan ini berlaku) bagi sekutu-sekutu dan diri mereka sendiri, kecuali bagi yang zalim dan jahat. Hal demikian akan merusak diri dan keluarga.

 

Pasal 26

Kaum Yahudi Banu Najjar diperlakukan sama seperti Yahudi Banu Awf.   

 

Pasal 27

Kaum Yahudi Banu Hars diperlakukan sama seperti Yahudi Banu Awf.

 

Pasal 28

Kaum Yahudi Banu Saidah diperlakukan sama seperti Yahudi Banu Awf.

 

Pasal 29

Kaum Yahudi Banu Jusyam diperlakukan sama seperti Yahudi Banu Awf.

 

Pasal 30

Kaum Yahudi Banu Al-Aws diperlakukan sama seperti Yahudi Banu Awf.

 

Pasal 31

Kaum Yahudi Banu Salabah diperlakukan sama seperti Yahudi Banu Awf.

 

Pasal 32

Kaum Yahudi Banu Jafnah dari Salabah diperlakukan sama seperti Yahudi Banu Awf.

 

Pasal 33

Kaum Yahudi Banu Syutaibah diperlakukan sama seperti Yahudi Banu Awf.

 

Pasal 34

Sekutu-sekutu Salabah diperlakukan sama seperti mereka (Banu Salabah).

 

Pasal 35

Kerabat Yahudi (di luar kota Madinah) sama seperti mereka (Yahudi).

 

Pasal 36

Tidak seorang pun dibenarkan (untuk berperang), kecuali seizin Muhammad SAW. Ia tidak boleh dihalangi  (menuntut pembalasan) luka (yang dibuat orang lain). Siapa berbuat jahat (membunuh), maka balasan kejahatan itu akan menimpa diri dan keluarganya, kecuali ia teraniaya. Sesunggunya Allah sangat membenarkan ketentuan ini.

 

Pasal 37

Bagi kaum Yahudi ada kewajiban biaya dan bagi mauk muslimin ada kewajiban biaya. Mereka (Yahudi dan muslimin) bantu membantu dalam menghadapi musuh piagam ini. Mereka saling memberi saran dan nasehat. Memenuhi janji lawan dari khianat. Seseorang tidak menanggung hukuman akibat (kesalahan) sekutunya. Pembelaan diberikan kepada pihak yang teraniaya.

 

Pasal 38

Kaum Yahudi memikul bersama mukiminin selama dalam peperangan.

 

Pasal 39

Sesungguhnya Yatsrib itu tanahnya haram (suci) bagi warga piagam ini.

 

Pasal 40

Orang yang mendapat jaminan (diperlakukan) seperti diri penjamin, sepanjang tidak bertindak merugikan dan tidak khianat.

 

Pasal 41

Tidak boleh jaminan diberikan kecuali seizin ahlinya.

 

Pasal 42

Bila terjadi suatu persitiwa atau perselisihan di antara pendukung piagam ini, yang dikhawatirkan menimbulkan bahaya, diserahkan penyelesaiannya menurut (ketentuan) Allah Azza Wa Jalla, dan (keputusan) Muhammad SAW. Sesungguhnya Allah paling memelihara dan memandang baik isi piagam ini.

 

Pasal 43

Sungguh tidak ada perlindungan bagi Quraisy (Mekkah) dan juga bagi pendukung mereka.

 

Pasal 44

Mereka (pendukung piagam) bahu membahu dalam menghadapi penyerang kota Yatsrib.

 

Pasal 45

Apabila mereka (pendukung piagam) diajak berdamai dan mereka (pihak lawan) memenuhi perdamaian serta melaksankan perdamaian itu, maka perdamaian itu harus dipatuhi. Jika mereka diajak berdamai seperti itu, kaum mukminin wajib memenuhi ajakan dan melaksanakan perdamaian itu, kecuali terhadap orang yang menyerang agama. Setiap orang wajib melaksanakan (kewajiban) masing-masing sesuai tugasnya.

 

Pasal 46

Kaum Yahudi Al-Aws, sekutu dan diri mereka memiliki hak dan kewajiban seperti kelompok lain pendukung piagam ini, dengan perlakuan yang baik dan penuh dari semua pendukung piagam ini. Sesungguhnya kebaikan (kesetiaan) itu berbeda dari kejahatan (pengkhianatan). Setiap orang bertanggung jawab atas perbuatannya. Sesungguhnya Allah paling

membenarkan dan memandang baik isi piagam ini.

 

Pasal 47

Sesungguhnya piagam ini tidak membela orang zalim dan khianat. Orang yang keluar (bepergian) aman, dan orang berada di Madinah aman, kecuali orang yang zalim dan khianat. Allah adalah penjamin orang yang berbuat baik dan takwa. Dan Muhammad Rasulullah SAW.

 

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